Week 6- How do I find and use images online?

The purpose of this practiceis to find and use legal images online


Guiding Principle

If you practice finding and using legal images online will be able to use images for the correct use to tell a story that words alone can’t.

Mindset

Learners who who know how to find and use legal images online can use legal images online to tell a story.

Goal

Define, find and insert legal images.


Practice Order

I. Absorb Set

Course Website
Read/view weekly course content

Take a 12 hour break (min.)

II. Do Set

Learner Blogs
Complete course activities on your personal course blog.


Due by Saturday 11:59 pm

Take a 12 hour break (min.)

III. Connect Set

Google Classroom

  • Complete providing feedback
Due by Monday 11:59 pm

Take a 12 hour break (min.)

IV. Reflect Set

Google Classroom

Grades- Complete self- assessment

Due by Tuesday 11:59 pm

Most SEO experts suggest using at least one photo in every blog post. From an aesthetic perspective, it’s a good idea, especially when the photo has something to do with the content. Photos and images are especially important for storytelling. Remember that “A picture is worth a thousand words” adage?

I always thought everyone knew that copying and pasting photos, images, or any content found on the internet was a definite no-no given that you have to assume works you find online are protected by copyright, whether here in the US or from another country extending such rights, unless otherwise indicated.

Boy was I wrong! When I speak on this topic, one of the questions I asked of the audience is how many people have had something they posted online stolen. Nearly every hand in the room goes up.

I usually go on to ask how many people have used or taken images straight from Google Images. That one always shocks me, because, again, I would think people would know that Google is a good resource and not a repository.

Sara Hawkins – Attorney


How do I find and use images online?


The meaning of sadhana.

Sadhana does not mean any specific kind of activity. Sadhana means you are using everything as a tool to open to the flow of natural experience.

Natural experience opens your connection to understanding and wisdom as it naturally comes and goes in the give and take of the river of life.

Sadhguru & T.Y. Pang

The meaning of true education.

True education should wake up the Innate Humanity inside of you. When you reach a higher level of practice and understanding, you learn to harmonize yourself inside, then you become able to harmonize with other people, and with outside situations.

T.Y. Pang

The Promise

It is up to you to make the time for practice; the more you practice the more you will learn.

Time is a created thing. To say I don’t have time,’ is like saying, I don’t want to.

― Lao Tzu

I. Absorb Set
Practice in order

Let’s Begin

First, please complete the sadhana practice. Second, click on each question and review each answer. Third, take a break!


1. Complete your sadhana practice.

Sadhana does not mean any specific kind of activity, sadhana means you are using everything as a tool to open to the flow of natural learning.

The purpose of this sadhana is to help you get started opening to the flow of natural experience .

Center yourself.

Click Here
This weeks centering thought

Close your eyes and quietly sit straight and upright head and spine straight, concentrating only on your breath for 2 minutes. Sit in an erect position, shoulders relaxed, palms flat on thighs. Center your focus on your midsection. Breath in and out deeply through your nose.

Quietly sit straight and upright head and spine straight, concentrating only on your breath. Sit in an erect position, shoulders relaxed, palms flat on thighs. Center your focus on your midsection. Breath in and out deeply through your nose.

Pay attention to your spine.

Your spine is where you will feel the flow of energy. Notice which parts of the spine feel warm and where there are no feelings or numbness. This information will indicate where your energy is flowing and where it is not. Your energy originates in the spine and flows out through the body.

straight and upright
When thoughts come up, let them go gently.

Don’t beat yourself up. That brings more thought. Gently let them go. Use the RAIN tool below to help you gently let go.


  • Recognize your thoughts.
  • Allow your thoughts to be just as they are.
  • Investigate your thoughts with kindness.
  • Natural awareness will come from not identifying with your thoughts.

Throughout the week, keep reminding yourself why you do sadhana.

Otherwise, your thoughts, your emotions, your physicality will get entangled with your runaway mind.

Practice tapping into your awareness to open your mind and take your thinking apart.
2. What are the types of online photographs?

Most images you’ll see online are one of four types: rights-protected, royalty-free, common free license, or public domain.

Rights-Managed Photographs

Rights-managed or rights-protected photographs can be purchased under a copyright license for one-time use, or for a restricted amount of time or specific purpose. Many of the stock images sold by stock image sites like iStock, Shutterstock, and Getty Images are rights-managed. Because rights-managed photos are often more expensive, it’s a good practice to review the purchase agreement to ensure that you are purchasing it for the correct usage.

Royalty-Free Images

With a royalty-free image, the user pays a one-time fee, which covers multiple usages with no additional charges. Be sure to check the licensing agreement for details about how the photo may be used, and any restrictions on usage types.

Common Free License Photographs

Images with a “common free license” are protected by copyright, but are free to use, share, repurpose, and adapt. Most common free license photographs use a Creative Commons license, which offers six different levels of free usage access.

Photos in the Public Domain

Photos that are in the public domain are not protected by copyright, have no limitations on use, and no fees for any type of usage. Images in the public domain include most photographs that are more than 100 years old, and any photo produced by a government or government agency.

3. What Is copyright?

Copyright is a federal law of the United States that protects original works of authorship. A work of authorship includes literary, written, dramatic, artistic, musical and certain other types of works.

Copyright attaches as soon as the original work is created, and applies to both published and unpublished works. As soon as you type words, click the shutter on your camera (or, for many of you, hit the home button on your iPhone), apply paint to canvas or paper or lay down tracks for your next hit, you’ve got a copyright (with some exceptions).

Copyright is an automatic right and does not require the author to file special paperwork, as is the case for trademark and patent. Registration is required to enforce the rights, but as a matter of right, an author is not required to register anything to get the right to use the “circle c,” showing the work is copyrighted.

One of the many terrific things about copyright is that it comes with a host of exclusive rights that allow the owner to do or authorize a number of things and exercise substantial control over his or her work. The copyright owner has the right to do four things (called exclusive rights):

  1. Reproduce the copyrighted work;
  2. Display the copyrighted work publicly;
  3.  Prepare derivative works based on the copyrighted work; and
  4. Distribute copies of the copyrighted work to the public by sale, rental or lending, and/or to display the image.

Source: 17 USC Section 106.Copyright does not apply to works in the public domain; words, names, slogans or short phrases (those may have protection in trademark law); blank forms; works that are not original; and government works. This is important to know because if the work is not protected by copyright, then there is no concern whether the Fair Use Doctrine will apply to allow you to use the work.

As online content creatorscurators and managers, you know the value of using images to get the reader’s attention, add a visual component to commentary, illustrate using an infographic or any of a host of benefits. Using the correct image can definitely take a post from drab to fab very quickly. It can also help tell a story that words alone can’t.

But unless you’re a photographer showcasing your own work, chances are you’ll need to use work created and owned by someone else. There are plenty of sources. While the general rule is that you can’t use a copyrighted work without express authorization from the owner, there is one significant legal construct that allows millions of people every day to see and share images online.

Please keep in mind that stock photo services, creative commons licenses and public domain repositories of images are not subject to fair use due to the rights they carry.

Stock photo services require you to pay for a license, creative commons licenses confer the right to use an image under certain circumstances and public domain images are not subject to copyright in the first place.

4. What Is Fair Use of copyright?

Fair use is not the same as free use. Fair use is a legal exception to the exclusive rights an owner has for his or her copyrighted work.

It has little to do with what we may think is fair, and everything to do with keeping the balance tipped in favor of the public interest. It’s a delicate balance, mind you, but one that often leaves the copyright owner wanting to scream.

The purpose of the Fair Use Doctrine is to allow for limited and reasonable uses as long as the use does not interfere with owners’ rights or impede their right to do with the work as they wish.

Since this discussion will only pertain to use of images online, I will use examples specific to this.

A classic example of fair use of an image online is product reviews. If you want to review a book, a new piece of technology, a food product or whatever widget, you’ll likely want to include a photo. But not some washed-out, overexposed, shadowy, laundry in the background kind of photo that you’d take.

So you head to the manufacturer’s website and right-click that image and save it to upload to your site. A photo will not substitute for the actual product, so the owner’s rights should be very minimally affected. Therefore, your right to use the copyrighted image would likely be permitted under fair use.*

Fair use is in place for the greater good, to allow copyrighted works to be used without permission for the benefit of the public. Imagine not being able to use images of a dead dictator to tell the story of how he died. Or not being able to talk about fashion without showing the outfit you’re referring to.

However, there are limits and only a court has the final decision-making ability. Section 107 of the Copyright Act states:

the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.

In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include—the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;

the nature of the copyrighted work; the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

Source: 17 USC Section 107.

All four factors are used in determining fair use, with the first (the purpose and character of the use) being the most important the court will examine. When it comes to photographs, copyright law has a long-standing deference to permit a photographer control over the first time an image is made public. In this discussion, we’ll assume that you’re not hacking computer systems or digging through rubbish bins looking for non-public images.

One of the issues with photos is that using just part of it is, well, a bit ridiculous. This is the third  factor courts will look at (how much of the work is used); however, it is often a very significant element of whether fair use exists.

Unlike the written or spoken word, where excerpting a portion to illustrate is possible, with images it is usually the whole that is necessary. A partial photo, unless you’re doing some kind of guessing game, does not portray the level of professionalism you’re likely going for.

Same with using a very low-resolution option. Not only does a low-res image look bad on your site, the image creator (whether photographer or designer) probably doesn’t want a bad-quality image circulated, as it could impact his or her reputation.

5. When can I use a copyrighted image?

#1: Do you understand the term fair use? Just because you provide attribution and/or a link back to the original doesn’t mean you’re free and clear. Fair use has nothing to do with attribution. That’s an issue related to plagiarism, which is different from copyright.

Fair use basically means you’re allowed to infringe on someone’s copyright and they can’t do anything about it. If your use is covered by fair use, you don’t have to provide attribution anyway (although it would be nice).

#2: Why are you using the image? If it is “…for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research…” you’re on the right track.

If you’re just using the image to pretty up a post, then think twice; or better yet, get permission or buy a stock image.

#3: Have you transformed the image? If the new work which incorporates the copyrighted image is a “transformative work”—what you created no longer resembles the original—there is a greater likelihood of finding an exception to copyright infringement.

Are you taking an image and incorporating it into an infographic? Is the image now part of a video used for one of the reasons set forth in the Copyright Act?

#4: How much of the image are you using? If you’re using a thumbnail and linking to the original location, there is greater likelihood of finding fair use than if you just post the original image. If you’re doing a post about facial features and are just using a portion of the face from an image, you stand a better chance of arguing fair use than if you used the entire image.

#5: Are you willing to risk your site being taken down, getting a cease and desist/bill/DMCA or being sued? The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) provides very powerful options for a copyright owner to protect his or her works in the digital space. By hitting “publish,” you may be opening a can of worms.

5. What is the Public Domain?

The term “public domain” refers to creative materials that are not protected by intellectual property laws such as copyright, trademark, or patent laws. The public owns these works, not an individual author or artist. Anyone can use a public domain work without obtaining permission, but no one can ever own it.

An important wrinkle to understand about public domain material is that, while each work belongs to the public, collections of public domain works may be protected by copyright. If, for example, someone has collected public domain images in a book or on a website, the collection as a whole may be protectable even though individual images are not. You are free to copy and use individual images but copying and distributing the complete collection may infringe what is known as the “collective works” copyright. Collections of public domain material will be protected if the person who created it has used creativity in the choices and organization of the public domain material. This usually involves some unique selection process, for example, a poetry scholar compiling a book—The Greatest Poems of e.e. cummings.

There are four common ways that works arrive in the public domain:

  • the copyright has expired
  • the copyright owner failed to follow copyright renewal rules
  • the copyright owner deliberately places it in the public domain, known as “dedication,” or
  • copyright law does not protect this type of work.
6. How do you find copyright free images with Google Image Search?

Google image search – filter by usage rights

You can find unlicensed images directly on Google.

Just type your search query – today I’ll be looking for ‘cats that look like people’ because what the heck else is the internet good for…

google image search

Then click on Search Tools, then Usage Rights and select Labeled for Reuse.

google image search filter
7. How do you find copyright free images with Flickr Creative Commons?

Flickr is a massive user-generated resource for photography, with many professionals and semi-professionals showcasing their work here.

You can search all the images by usage rights, and use any that are labelled with a Creative Commons licence.

You just have to make sure you give full credit and link to the Flickr profile of the person who took the photo.

There are various licences available, so make sure you double-check the details. 

Flickr Creative Commons
8. What are some online sources for free images?

What you need to know:

  • The photos on the sites listed below are free to use in any personal or commercial application.
  • In most cases the photos can be modified, though in some cases you may be required to indicate whether you made changes to the original.
  • You do not need to ask permission to use the photos.
  • Some sites require you to include a photo credit when you use a photo.
  • Usually, free photos cannot be used in offensive materials.
  • Please read the license agreement on each of the sites below for any additional usage details or restrictions.

Free Photography Sites

9. What are main types (formats) of digital images?

here are 5 main formats in which to store images. Why would you choose one over another, and what are the differences?

1. TIFF (also known as TIF), file types ending in .tif

TIFF stands for Tagged Image File Format. TIFF images create very large file sizes. TIFF images are uncompressed and thus contain a lot of detailed image data (which is why the files are so big) TIFFs are also extremely flexible in terms of color (they can be grayscale, or CMYK for print, or RGB for web) and content (layers, image tags).

TIFF is the most common file type used in photo software (such as Photoshop), as well as page layout software (such as Quark and InDesign), again because a TIFF contains a lot of image data.

2. JPEG (also known as JPG), file types ending in .jpg

JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, which created this standard for this type of image formatting. JPEG files are images that have been compressed to store a lot of information in a small-size file. Most digital cameras store photos in JPEG format, because then you can take more photos on one camera card than you can with other formats.

A JPEG is compressed in a way that loses some of the image detail during the compression in order to make the file small (and thus called “lossy” compression).

JPEG files are usually used for photographs on the web, because they create a small file that is easily loaded on a web page and also looks good.

JPEG files are bad for line drawings or logos or graphics, as the compression makes them look “bitmappy” (jagged lines instead of straight ones).

3. GIF, file types ending in .gif

GIF stands for Graphic Interchange Format. This format compresses images but, as different from JPEG, the compression is lossless (no detail is lost in the compression, but the file can’t be made as small as a JPEG).

GIFs also have an extremely limited color range suitable for the web but not for printing. This format is never used for photography, because of the limited number of colors. GIFs can also be used for animations.

4. PNG, file types ending in .png

PNG stands for Portable Network Graphics. It was created as an open format to replace GIF, because the patent for GIF was owned by one company and nobody else wanted to pay licensing fees. It also allows for a full range of color and better compression.

It’s used almost exclusively for web images, never for print images. For photographs, PNG is not as good as JPEG, because it creates a larger file. But for images with some text, or line art, it’s better, because the images look less “bitmappy.”

When you take a screenshot on your Mac, the resulting image is a PNG–probably because most screenshots are a mix of images and text.

5. Raw image files

Raw image files contain data from a digital camera (usually). The files are called raw because they haven’t been processed and therefore can’t be edited or printed yet. There are a lot of different raw formats–each camera company often has its own proprietary format.

Raw files usually contain a vast amount of data that is uncompressed. Because of this, the size of a raw file is extremely large. Usually they are converted to TIFF before editing and color-correcting.

10. How do you make your own screenshots?

You can take screenshots of anything on your computer screen.

There’s a Chrome extension called Awesome Screenshot that allows you to take screenshots of your browser window (either partial or the whole web page) very easily, and you can annotate the image before downloading it.

Or alternatively you can just press command+shift+4 on a Mac and use its own inbuilt screenshot tool.

11. How do I add images to my (WordPress) activity posts?
Login to your activity page and go to the place where you want to insert a picture. Then follow the instructions below.

1. Click on the + sign to add an image
Click picture to enlarge.

2. Click on the image box
Click picture to enlarge.

3. Upload your picture file.
Click picture to enlarge.

4. Resize & format your picture
Click picture to enlarge.

Break and Slow Walk
Practice in order

Take a break for 12 hours (min)
To help your awareness flow, go outside for a slow walk.


NEXT
II. Do Set
Practice in order

All Do Set activities are completed on your personal course blog.
To find your course blog click on the Learner Blogs link on the menu bar at the top of this page.